A car is moving on a circular road of radius 100mCircular motion does not have to be at a constant speed. A particle can travel in a circle and speed up or slow down, showing an acceleration in the direction of the motion. In uniform circular motion, the particle executing circular motion has a constant speed and the circle is at a fixed radius.Let the person start moving from A and reach B via O. The distance travelled by the person = Length of track = πr = \(\frac{22}{7}\) x 50 m = 157.14m Distance = 157.14 m The displacement is equal to the diameter of the semi-circular track joining A to B via O. = 2r = 2 x 50 m = 100m ∴ Displacement = 100 m. Question 10.road should be banked so that a car traveling at 20.0 m/s can safely negotiate the curve if the radius of the curve is 200.0 m. Slide 25 / 55 2. Determine the velocity that a car should have while traveling around a frictionless curve of radius 100m and that is banked 20 degrees. Slide 26 / 55 3. If the road in number 2 was not frictionless ...Problem C: If the radius of a turn is 100m and the road is perfectly banked for a car travelling at 20m=s. Find the banking angle. Soln C: For a \perfectly banked" curve there is no need of friction hence s = 0 tan = v2 rg = 202 100 9:8 = 22:2 Find s for a car so that it does not to skid when its velocity is 30m=s v = s rg(sin + scos ) cos ssin a) Each parking space shall have a minimum width of 2.75 m and a minimum area of 16.5 m 2 and be readily accessible without obstructions at all times for parking and removal of a motor vehicle without the necessity of moving any other vehicle or obstruction. The minimum area of a parking space may include walkways for residential uses only. Assuming the coefficient of friction between the road and tyres of a car to be 0.5, the maximum speed with which the car can move round a curve of 40.0 m radius without slipping, if the road is unbanked, should be [AMU 1995]2) A car of mass 1500kg is moving with a speed of 12.5m/s on a circular path of radius 20 m on a level road . what should be the value of coefficient of friction to attain this force ? 3) A circular track of radius 100m is designed for an average speed 54 km/h . find the average of banking .A) Velocity of the car, v=20m/s Mass of the car, m=1000kg Radius of the circular path, r=100m Mass of the driver m1=70kg (a)The normal force on the car,F=. the stock price's future movement? b. What is the most money you can make on this position? c. How far can the stock price move in either...Race cars with constant speed around curve. Transcript. When acceleration could involve a change in direction and not speed. Created by Sal Khan. Circular motion and centripetal acceleration. Race cars with constant speed around curve. This is the currently selected item. Centripetal force and acceleration intuition.A car moves around a circular path of a constant radius at a constant speed. Which of the following statements is true? a. the car's velocity is constant in magnitude and direction b. the car's acceleration is constant in magnitude and direction c. the car's acceleration is 0 d. The car's velocity is directed toward the centerThis is the acceleration of an object in a circle of radius at a speed . So, centripetal acceleration is greater at high speeds and in sharp curves—smaller radii—as you have noticed when driving a car. But it is a bit surprising that is proportional to speed squared, implying, for example, that it is four times as hard to take a curve at ...The distance between these two clocks is carefully measured to be 124.5 m. The two clocks are automatically started when the car passes a trigger in the road; each clock stops automatically when the car passes that clock. After the car has passed both clocks, clock A is found to read IA = 1.22 s, and clock B to read 18 = 4.5 s. (a) If the car is moving on straight road (b) If the car is moving in circular path (c) The pendulum is moving to and fro (d) The earth is revolving around the sun Answer: (a) The distance moved and magnitude of displacement are equal only in the case of motion along a straight line. Because displacement is the shortest path between initial and ...Draw a radius circle around a location in Google Maps to show a distance from that point in all directions. Note: With this tool, you can know the radius of a circle anywhere on Google Maps by simply clicking on a single point and extending or moving the circle to change the radius on the Map.For example, when a car is moving on the road, ... The radius of the circular orbit, r = 42250 km. Time taken to revolve around the earth, t = 24 h. Speed of a circular moving object, ... Ans. Total distance travelled =100m. Total time taken = 9.83 sec.If the two wheels are front and rear wheel, both distances should be equal. Revolutions specifies, how often the wheel turns around at the covered distance. Radius of a wheel is the span between center and edge, diameter ist twice the radius, the span from edge to opposite edge. Circumference is the distance a wheel covers at one revolution.Find the maximum velocity for the overturn of a car moving on a circular track of radius 100 m. The co-efficient of friction between the road and tyre is 0.2 A. 0.14 m/s B. 140 m/s C. 1.4 km/s D. 14 m/sA skating rink is perfectly circular and it has a radius of 12m. A skater circles the rink on the ... The tortoise and the hare were racing a distance of 100m. The hare stopped to take a nap 10m ... 8. 2A car is moving 12 m/s and coasts up a hill with a uniform acceleration of -1.0 m/s . How farQuestion 5: A driver of a car travelling at 52 km/h applies the brakes and accelerates uniformly in the opposite direction. The car stops in 5 s. Another driver going at 3 km/h in another car applies his brakes slowly and stops in 10 s. On the same graph paper, plot the speed versus time graphs for the two cars.a car negotiating a flat curve of radius 50 m with a speed of 20 m/s. the centripetal force provide by friction is 1.2x10^4 . what is the mass of the car? 0.40 a car goes around a flat curve of radius 50 m at a speed of 14 m/s. what must be the minimum coefficient of friction between the tires and the road for the car to make the car?A body of mass 50g is moving with a constant velocity of 5m/s on a horizontal smooth surface. The force acting on the body is A cyclist is riding with a speed of 27km/h. As he approach a circular turn on the road of radius 80m ,he applies break and reduces his speed of the constant rate of 0.5m/s every seconds.When a car is moving in a circular track, its acceleration is perpendicular to its direction. 11. An artificial satellite is moving in a circular orbit of radius 42250 km. Calculate its speed if it takes 24 hours to revolve around the earth.a) Each parking space shall have a minimum width of 2.75 m and a minimum area of 16.5 m 2 and be readily accessible without obstructions at all times for parking and removal of a motor vehicle without the necessity of moving any other vehicle or obstruction. The minimum area of a parking space may include walkways for residential uses only. This is the acceleration of an object in a circle of radius at a speed . So, centripetal acceleration is greater at high speeds and in sharp curves—smaller radii—as you have noticed when driving a car. But it is a bit surprising that is proportional to speed squared, implying, for example, that it is four times as hard to take a curve at ...13. A 1000-kg sports car moving at 20 m/s crosses the rounded top of a hill (radius = 100 m). Determine (a) the normal force on the car, (b) the normal force on the 70-kg driver, and (c) the car speed at which the normal force equals zero. This is a well disguised motion in a vertical circle problem.3. A car traveling 20 m/s rounds an 80 -m radius horizontal curve with the tires on the verge of slipping. How fast can this car round a second curve of radius 320 m? (Assume the same coefficient of friction between the car's tires and each road surface.) a) 20 m/s b) 40 m/s c) 80 m/s d) 160 m/sAs you are riding in a 1650-kg car, you approach a hairpin curve in the road whose radius is 50 m. The roadbed is banked inward at an angle of 10 degrees. Suppose that the road is dry and that the staJun 30, 2021 · An athlete running 100m along a straight track. A car moving on a straight road. The linear motion depending on the path of motion is further divided as follows (1) Rectilinear Motion: When we require only one co-ordinate axis along with time to describe the motion of a particle it is said to be in linear motion or rectilinear motion. Some ... A circular road course track has a radius of 500 m and is banked to 10°. If the coefficient of friction between the road and tyre is 0.25. Compute (i) the maximum speed to avoid slipping (ii) optimum speed to avoid wear and tear of the tyres. Solution:The radius of a highway curve is 120 m, and has an angle of 9.31° from the horizontal. The center of gravity of the car is located 0.80 m above the roadway and the distance between the two front wheels is 1.2 m. If the car has a total weight of 15 KN. a. Determine the normal acceleration and the velocity (in kph) of the car before overturning. b.v=0.8c, we nd 0 = s 1 -v=c 1 +v=c ˇ40.7nm (6) 2. Two spaceships approach the Earth from opposite directions. According to an observer on the Earth, ship A is moving at a speed of 0.753cand ship B at a speed of 0.851c. rotation of earth. The radius of earth is 6.4x106 m. (3.38 X 10-2 ms-2) (b) (i) Explain why the car needs a horizontal force to turn the corner and where this force comes from? (ii) A van of mass M kg negotiates a circular road whose radius is 100 m. If the frictional force between its tyres and the road is 0.5 times its weight.A car is moving on a circular level road of curvature 300 m. If the coefficient of friction is 0.3 and acceleration due to gravity is 10 m s-2, the maximum speed of the car can be Q.(a) If the car is moving on a straight road. (b) If the car is moving in circular path. (c) The pendulum is moving to and fro. (d) The earth is revolving around the sun. 2. A particle is moving in a circular path of radius r, the displacement after half a circle would be: (a) zero (b) πr (c) 2r (d) 2πr. 3. Slope of velocity-time graph givesacceleration of a body moving with uniform speed v along a circular path of radius r. explain how it acts along the radius towards the centre of the circular path. HOTS Q1. and are two vectors and is the angle between them, If. x = 3 ( . ), calculate the value of angle . Ans : 60 0. Q2. 5. For a given road, the safe stopping sight distance is 100m and the passing sight distance is 300m. What is the intermediate sight distance? A. 200 m B. 100 m C. 150m D. 50 m Ans. A 6. Design rate of superelevation of horizontal highway curve of radius 400m for a mixed traffic condition having a speed of 100kmph is: A. 1.0 B. 0.07 C. 0.11 D. 0.3 Tamang sagot sa tanong: a car moving at 96.8 km/h travels around a circular curve of radius 182.9 m on a flat country road. what must be the minimum coefficient of static friction to keep the car from slipping? Two train the moving on the same track. the velocity of first train and 72 km/h and the second is 36 km/h. If the 1st train behind the 2nd train, then the minimum distance between the trains such that they do not collide ( retardation of brakes of 1st train is 0.05 m/s^2) 1) 1000m 2) 500m 3) 100m 4) 3000mA car is moving along a circular road at a speed of 20 m/s. The radius of circular road is 10 m. If the speed is increased at the rate of 30 m/s 2, what is the resultant acceleration at that moment? (A) 10 m/s 2 (B) 50 m/s 2 (C) 250 m/s 2 (D) 80 m/s26. A hollow sphere has radius 6.4 m. what is the minimum velocity required by a motor. cyclist at bottom to complete the circle. (Ans: V=17.7 m/s ) 7. A bend in a level road has a radius of 100m. find the maximum speed which a car turning this bend may have without skidding, if the coefficient of friction between the tyres and road is 0.8.A car is moving at high speed along a highway when the driver makes an emergency braking. The wheels become locked (stop rolling), and the resulting skid marks are 32.0 meters long. If the coefficient of kinetic friction between tires and road is 0.550, and the acceleration was constant during braking, how fast was the car going when the wheels ... Direction: On a short bond paper, desig … n a poster which presents helpful information to the public about effects of global warming on the earth.A 1000 kg car is going around a curve with radius 30 meters. If the coefficient of friction between the car's tires and the road is 0.5, what is the maximum speed at which the car can make the turn? Solution: mass of car, m = 1000 kg; radius of curve, r = 30 m; coefficient of friction, = 0.5; free-fall acceleration, g = 9.8 m/s 2A bend in a level road has a radius of 100m. find the maximum speed which a car turning this bend may have without skidding, if the coefficient of friction between the tyres and road is 0.8 1 - Curve Widening Change TD 9 Clause so that widening of 0.3m per lane shall only be provided for radii greater than 100m up to 150m.A car is driving at constant speed over a hill, which is a circular dome of radius 240 m. Above what speed will the car leave the road at the top of the hill? Solution: Draw the free-body diagram for the car at the top of the hill: The force pointing towards the centre of the circle (i.e. down) is Fnet = W - N = mg - N The maximum value ...A 1000 kg car is going around a curve with radius 30 meters. If the coefficient of friction between the car's tires and the road is 0.5, what is the maximum speed at which the car can make the turn? Solution: mass of car, m = 1000 kg; radius of curve, r = 30 m; coefficient of friction, = 0.5; free-fall acceleration, g = 9.8 m/s 27 A car is traveling on a road in hilly terrain, see figure. Assume the car has speed v and the tops and bottoms of the hills have radius of curvature R. The driver of the car is most likely to feel weightless: A at the top of a hill when v =√gR B at the bottom of a hill when v =√gR C going down a hill when v =√gRMar 13, 2022 · The co-efficient of friction between the road and tyre is 0.2 Find the maximum velocity for the overturn of a car moving on a circular track of radius 100 m. PHONE: +1 (940) 905 5542 Find the maximum velocity for the overturn of a car moving on a circular track of radius 100 m. The co-efficient of friction between the road and tyre is 0.2 a) 0.14 m/s b) 140 m/s c) 1.4 km/s d) 14 m/sA car is negotiating a curved road of radius R. The road is banked at angle and the coefficient of friction between the tyres of car and the road is .The given situation is illustrated as:In the case of vertical equilibrium,N cos = mg + f1 sin mg = N cos ... (i)In the case of horizontal equilibrium, ... (ii)Dividing Eqns. (i) and (ii), we getHow Far Does a Car Go? On dry concrete, a car can decelerate at a rate of 7.00 m/s 2, whereas on wet concrete it can decelerate at only 5.00 m/s 2. Find the distances necessary to stop a car moving at 30.0 m/s (about 110 km/h) on (a) dry concrete and (b) wet concrete.Originally Answered: A car is travelling on a circular road of radius 500m at some instant its speed is 30m/s and is increasing at the rate of 2m/s. what is its acceleration? In such a situation, the distance moved by a point on its rim is equal to the circumference of a circle with radius.Enter a radius and address to draw a circle on a map. You can also repeat the process to create multiple radius circles. This allows you to find out where they intersect, and what areas are not within the radius of any of your locations.A car traveling at 10 m/s passes over a hill on a road that has a circular cross section of radius 30 m. What is the magnitude of the force exerted by the seat of the car on a 60-kg passenger when ...A car of mass 1000 kg moves with a speed of 60 m/s on a circular track of radius 110 m. What is the magnitude of its angular momentum (in kg·m2/s) relative to the center of the race track? Select the correct answer. 6.6 x 106 6.6 x 107 6.6 x 104 3.3 x 103 3.3 x 106 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 ...A car is driving at constant speed over a hill, which is a circular dome of radius 240 m. Above what speed will the car leave the road at the top of the hill? Solution: Draw the free-body diagram for the car at the top of the hill: The force pointing towards the centre of the circle (i.e. down) is Fnet = W - N = mg - N The maximum value ...Total distance = 100m = 0.1 km. ... Q42. A particle is moving in a circular path of radius r. the displacement after half a circle would be: a) 0. b) πr. c) 2r. d) 2πr. ... if the car is moving on straight road. b) if the car is moving on circular road. c) if the pendulum is moving to and fro. d) if a planet is moving around the sun ...Homework Statement The diagram below shows a roller coaster ride which contains a circular loop of radius r. A car of mass m begins at rest from point A and moves down the frictionless track from A to B where it then enters the vertical loop (also frictionless), travelling once around the circle from B to C to D to E and back to B, after which it travels along the flat portion of the track ...A boy is moving on a straight road against a frictional force of 5 N. After travelling a distance of 1.5 km he forgot the correct path at a round about (Fig. 11.1) of radius 100 m. However, he moves on the circular path for one and half cycle and then he moves forward upto 2.0 km. Calculate the work done by him.6. A hollow sphere has radius 6.4 m. what is the minimum velocity required by a motor. cyclist at bottom to complete the circle. (Ans: V=17.7 m/s ) 7. A bend in a level road has a radius of 100m. find the maximum speed which a car turning this bend may have without skidding, if the coefficient of friction between the tyres and road is 0.8.rotation of earth. The radius of earth is 6.4x106 m. (3.38 X 10-2 ms-2) (b) (i) Explain why the car needs a horizontal force to turn the corner and where this force comes from? (ii) A van of mass M kg negotiates a circular road whose radius is 100 m. If the frictional force between its tyres and the road is 0.5 times its weight.For example, when a car is moving on the road, ... The radius of the circular orbit, r = 42250 km. Time taken to revolve around the earth, t = 24 h. Speed of a circular moving object, ... Ans. Total distance travelled =100m. Total time taken = 9.83 sec.a car negotiating a flat curve of radius 50 m with a speed of 20 m/s. the centripetal force provide by friction is 1.2x10^4 . what is the mass of the car? 0.40 a car goes around a flat curve of radius 50 m at a speed of 14 m/s. what must be the minimum coefficient of friction between the tires and the road for the car to make the car?Free online angular velocity calculator to calculate the angular speed of a body in motion given the rotation frequency or given linear velocity and circular radius. The angular speed calculator can be used to solve for linear speed or radius. Supports multiple metrics like meters per second (m/s), km per hour, miles per hour, yards and feet per second.Mar 21, 2018 · A car of mass 500kg is moving in a circular road of radius 35 / √3 . Angle of the banking of road is 30. asked Aug 24, 2021 in Laws of motion by kavitaKumari ( 13.3k points) At some instant its speed is 20m/s and is increasing at the rate of 3m/s^2. The magnitude of its acceleration is. October 21, 2020. Category: Cengage NEET by C.P Singh , Chapter 9 - Circular Motion , Part 1 Transcript. NCERT Question 1 An athlete completes one round of a circular track of diameter 200 m in 40 s. What will be the distance covered and the displacement at the end of 2 minutes 20 s?(a) is moving with uniform velocity (b) has some initial velocity (c) is moving uniformly with some initial velocity (d) is at rest. Ans - (b) has some initial velocity. Q 27 - A racing car has a uniform acceleration of 6 m/s 2.In 10s it will cover: (a) 300m (b) 100m (c) 200m (d) 350m Ans - (a) 300m Q 28 - The equations of motion can be derived by using: (a) Distance - time graphA car goes around a flat curve of radius #50# #m# at a speed of #14# #ms^-1#. What is the minimum coefficient of friction between the tires and the road for the car to make the turn? Physics. 1 Answer David G. Jul 3, 2016 Centripetal acceleration is given by #a=v^2/r#. The minimum friction ...103) A road is 10 m wide. Its radius of a) 6 mg b) 4 mg curvature is 50 m. The outer edge is c) 2 mg d) 3 mg. above the lower edge by a distance of 1.5 109) A car is moving in a circular horizontal m. ASK. Science Physics Q&A Library 3. A racing car travels on a circular track of radius 240 m. Assuming the car moves with a constant speed of 45.0 m/s, find its angular speed and the magnitude and direction of its acceleration. 3. A racing car travels on a circular track of radius 240 m.A 1000-kg sports car moving at 20 m/s crosses the rounded top of a hill (radius=100m). Determine the normal force on the car. I think if I understand how to do this problem, I'll be fine with the others. Thanks for any input! *edited. Sorry! I posted the wrong problem. haha. This should be the one. Yup, normal force.A 1000-kg sports car moving at 20 m/s crosses the rounded top of a hill (radius=100m). Determine the normal force on the car. I think if I understand how to do this problem, I'll be fine with the others. Thanks for any input! *edited. Sorry! I posted the wrong problem. haha. This should be the one. Yup, normal force.A car moving at a speed of 36 km/h is taking. horizontal plane about one of its ends with a. a turn on a circular road of radius 50 m. A. uniform angular velocity .The force exerted. small wooden plate is kept on the seat with its. by the liquid at the other end is . plane perpendicular to the radius of the circular road. A small block of mass ... L) It happens on a slope like a mountain or a hill. The rocks and earth become loose and fall down the slope. Q) It occurs when the plates of the earth start to move and the ground begins to move and shake. It can range from the very big (which can destroy cities) to the very small (which you might not...Car A is traveling on a straight road while car B is moving along a circular exit ramp with a radius of 90 m, Figure 2. A's velocity is increasing at a rate of 2 m / s2 and the velocity of B is decreasing at a rate of 1.2 m / s2. For the indicated position, determine the acceleration of A relative to B. fullscreen Expand. check_circle.Q30. If a moving body comes to rest, then its acceleration is-. (i) positive. (ii) both of these depending upon the initial velocity. (iii) negative. (iv) zero. Show Answer. (iii) negative. We Think the given NCERT MCQ Questions for class 9 Science book Chapter 8 Motion with Answers Pdf free download will assist you.Roadbeds are frequently tilted or banked on curves so that the road will apply a force toward the center of the curve to help provide the centripetal force necessary to hold a car in a circular path. Calculate the angle of bank for a roadbed with a radius of 100m if a car is to go around the curve with no friction force. Sample Solution #5The motion of an Object on Banked Circular Road. When an object like a car or any other vehicle moves on a banked circular road, the necessary centripetal force is provided by the frictional force ... Free essays, homework help, flashcards, research papers, book reports, term papers, history, science, politics L) It happens on a slope like a mountain or a hill. The rocks and earth become loose and fall down the slope. Q) It occurs when the plates of the earth start to move and the ground begins to move and shake. It can range from the very big (which can destroy cities) to the very small (which you might not...Assuming the coefficient of friction between the road and tyres of a car to be 0.5, the maximum speed with which the car can move round a curve of 40.0 m radius without slipping, if the road is unbanked, should be [AMU 1995]Jan 04, 2022 · The ChVZ vibration fuze is primarily used with the DM road mine; however, any of the ChMV or ChV time delay fuzes may be used instead. anti-vehicular mine: Length: 155mm Weight: 1.8kg Explosive: 1.2kg Range: 100m Explosive/filler type: TNT: DM 1233 (AT-2) MCQs on Uniform Circular Motion : 1. The angular velocity of a body moving with a constant speed v in a circle of radius r is given by. 2. A cyclist turns around a curve at 15 miles/hour. If he turns at double the speed, the tendency to overturn is. 3. What will be the velocity vector of a particle moving in a circle describing equal angles in ...A particle is moving in a circular path of radius r. The displacement after half a circle would be A. zero B. `pi`r C. 2r ... If the car is moving on straight road B. If the car is moving in circular path C. The pendulum is moving to and fro ... rest at a height `100m`. What is the difference in their height after `2 s` if both the objects drop ...Mar 21, 2018 · A car of mass 500kg is moving in a circular road of radius 35 / √3 . Angle of the banking of road is 30. asked Aug 24, 2021 in Laws of motion by kavitaKumari ( 13.3k points) Step 1: Use the measuring tape to determine the radius (r) of the path of the car on the circular racetrack. Model the car as a point particle. Use the geometric center of the car as the location of this point. Step 2: Use the stopwatch to determine the time (T) needed for the car to move once around the track. Calculations: speed = v = 2πr/T A car moves around a circular path of a constant radius at a constant speed. Which of the following statements is true? a. the car's velocity is constant in magnitude and direction b. the car's acceleration is constant in magnitude and direction c. the car's acceleration is 0 d. The car's velocity is directed toward the centerAssuming the coefficient of friction between the road and tyres of a car to be 0.5, the maximum speed with which the car can move round a curve of 40.0 m radius without slipping, if the road is unbanked, should be [AMU 1995]Inertial profilers must be moving to measure the road roughness and require a minimum speed. They have been proven to produce accurate results even if they cannot collect long road undulations. However, spatialfrequencieslessthan 0.01cycles/m (wavelengthsabove 100m)arenegligiblefor road statistics in sense of durability [36]. a car moving with a constant velocity of 30 km/h on a rough road. ... A stone weighing 5kg. falls from the top of a tower 100m high and buries itself 1 m deep in the sand. What is the average resistance offered by sand? ... What is the acceleration of a body moving on a circular path of radius 400 m. If it has. constant speed of 40 ms-1;Figure 6.21 This car on level ground is moving away and turning to the left. The centripetal force causing the car to turn in a circular path is due to friction between the tires and the road. A minimum coefficient of friction is needed, or the car will move in a larger-radius curve and leave the roadway.suppose a boy run a distance of 100m in 50 sec is going from his home to shop in east direction.calculate the speed and velocity. hey mate here the starting point and the final point is different and is in straight line so. speed = velocity. Given : the boy first runs a distance of 100 metres in 50 seconds in going from his home to the shop in ...For example, when a car is moving on the road, ... The radius of the circular orbit, r = 42250 km. Time taken to revolve around the earth, t = 24 h. Speed of a circular moving object, ... Ans. Total distance travelled =100m. Total time taken = 9.83 sec.The illustration below explains and reinforces the relationships between radius, diameter and circumference. Teacher Radius is the measurement of a straight line from the center of a circle to the edge. Radius will always equal one half diameter. Diameter is the measurement of a straight line across the center of an object (in this case a wheel). pim websitewhere to sell old coins near meresultant vectordownload base64 file angularenglish to zawgyi converterfooto jaalalaacfa in stataraid shadow legends copypasta uwuxfx r7800 benchmark - fd